Wednesday, July 28, 2010

About the pseudo-genocide of Uzbeks or do not spit into the well from which you drink

About the pseudo-genocide of Uzbeks or do not spit into the well from which you drink

This is a translation of a paper that was published by a group of independent experts from Osh. The paper tries to prove that Uzbek people live wealthy in Osh and Kyrgyz people were the ones who suffered more in recent June 10 - 14, 2010 events. Translation was done by Azho KG and Miki, and it does not include any personal statements and opinions of the translators.

Currently, especially after June 10th-14th, 2010 in the southern Kyrgyzstan events, there have been several claims about genocide of Uzbeks in Kyrgyzstan in the international mass media and websites. International "Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide" (1948) provides the following definition of the term genocide: "Genocide is an act of destroying group of people, in whole or in part, based on a nationality, ethnicity, race or religion. It is a crime against humanity." Genocide can happen in the following forms:

a. Mass repression, which means killing group of people

b. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part

c. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group

d. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group

We will investigate each form of the genocide by applying to the case of Uzbek ethnicity in the Kyrgyz Republic. Anyone, who is familiar with Soviet history, should know how and when mass repression was done. An example is a repression of 30-40 years of 20th century, when individuals, families and group of people were disappearing every day. Bones of the repressed people were found in the territory of Kyrgyzstan, and now “Ata-Beyit” memorial is founded in that place. Another clear example is a repression during World War II, when population of Transcaucasia was taken from their houses and thrown to the streets of Central Asia, without any food, money and support. Kyrgyzstan in those days gave home and fed, thousands of Chechen, Ingush, Karachays, Balkars, Kurds, Turks and other ethnicities who in these days along with Kyrgyz people formed the nation of the Kyrgyz Socialist Republic.

But the most famous example would be fascistic repressions, when whole nations (Jews etc) were killed, just because of the reason that the blood in their veins was not Arians. Repressions, aiming to destroy and genocide group of people would be systematic, massive, well planned, and durable and as part of government’s policy. In the history of Kyrgyz people and Kyrgyzstan, from ancient times to the present days, there was not any genocide against any ethnicities, including Uzbeks. Uzbeks share same language, religion, place, ancestry, bazaars (markets) and mazaars (tombs) with Kyrgyz.

Of course, there were conflicts in June, 1990 and June, 2010. However these conflicts should not be considered as genocide, but they are more short-term ethno-political conflicts than inter-ethnic clash. In these conflicts both Kyrgyz and Uzbek people were wounded and killed. In both conflicts, June, 1990 and June, 2010 (the chosen date is not just coincidence), one of the sides lost much more (according to unofficial information) people than the other side, since one of the sides was well prepared for the conflict, but for the other side it was just shocking attack during the night sleep: weapon in the hands of Uzbeks, from mediaeval jacks to modern bazooka, armored Kamaz (truck cars), bunkers for gun-shooters, trench around the Amir-Temur region, mined roads around villages Nariman, Kashgar-Kyshtak and Sheyit-Tepa, where Uzbeks reside in, and much more evidences ... Besides this, same side had planned information war perfectly: SOS signs, posts about genocide of Uzbeks on the web-sites of international mass media, SOS signs in the well calculated places in mahallas (districts where live Uzbeks), that can be seen from bird’s eye view both during day time and night, huge number of non-certified international and local journalists coming to the place of conflict and interviewing only Uzbeks, videos and photos edited, arranged and made available in advance, ready tombs with Uzbek names on it, where bodies of Kyrgyz people were also buried (so far 28 Kyrgyz people’s bodies were dug up from “Uzbek-named” graves). At the same time, especially at first days of the conflict, the other side was just shocked by unexpected attacks and disinformation. This short-termed, well-prepared, planned in advanced, and so bloody conflict between two ethnicities, cannot be called as genocide of Uzbeks.

Second form of genocide: Deliberately inflicting on the group (in our case Uzbeks) conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part. Let us investigate life conditions of ethnicities of Kyrgyzstan, including Uzbeks, in a government that was founded by the Kyrgyz. The Preamble of the Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic, that was approved in the referendum in June 27, 2010, begins with (actually, all previous Constitutions do so) words: “We, the nation of Kyrgyzstan...”, which points out that all ethnicities of Kyrgyzstan form the nation of the republic. Point 3, article 10 of chapter 1 of the Constitution states that: “Kyrgyz Republic guarantees to all ethnicities, forming the nation of Kyrgyzstan, a right to maintain and use native languages, and building conditions for learning and developing it”. How this point of the Constitution is realized in the country (especially in Osh, where conflicts began) in the case of Uzbek ethnic group?

The population of Osh is 500 000, 67% of which are Kyrgyz, 27% are Uzbeks, 6% other ethnicities. Currently in Osh there are:

1. Kyrgyz – Uzbek University, which was build in 1994. For these 16 years rectors of the university were of Uzbek background (Mamasaid Mahmadjanov (1994-2004), Ismanjanov Anvarjan (2004 – 2010))

2. Institute of Uzbek language and literature with the Osh State University. Chairman: Turusnov Ravshan (Uzbek)

3. Babur” Uzbek Academic Music-Drama Theater. Chairman -Tuhtomatov Bahtiyarjon (Uzbek)

4. Uzbek National-Culture Center (Osh city), Chairman: Mamasaidov M. (Uzbek) and General-Major Sabirov, A. (Uzbek)

5. Regional Uzbek National-Culture Center, chairman of which was ex-deputy of Jogorku Kenesh of Kyrgyz Republic Salahuddinov Jamaldin. Recently (during June 2010 conflict) huge number of weapons (guns, machine-guns, grenade cup discharge, bazookas, grenades, tank-mine and etc ) were found in the store of his company.

6. Regional newspaper “Osh sadosi

7. A page in Uzbek language in regional newspaper “Osh shami”, which actually is Kyrgyz (language) newspaper

8. Private Uzbek TV channels: Osh TV, Mezon TV, DDD, which were privately owned by: Hudayberdiev Haliljon, Shakirov Mamirjon (Uzbek). General sponsors of these channels were: Sabirov Davran, Sabirov Alisher, Abdurasulov Inamjon, Abdullaeva Karamat (Uzbek) etc.

9. Tele-studio “Granit under Kyrgyz-Uzbek University

10. A page in Uzbek language in a newspaper Planeta Drujbi (Planet of friendship) under Kyrgyz-Uzbek University

11. Literary miscellany “Osh that is published in Kyrgyz, Uzbek and Russian languages

In 2009-2010, there were 57 schools in Osh city, where language of education was:

1. Kyrgyz language: 14

2. Uzbek Language: 14

3. Uzbek and Russian languages: 8

4. Kyrgyz and Russian Languages: 9

5. Kyrgyz, Uzbek and Russian Languages: 2

6. Kyrgyz and Uzbek languages: 1

From 1993 to 2009 the honorable award “The honored teacher of the Kyrgyz Republic” was given to 9 (nine) teachers (in Osh City):

1. 4 of them were Kyrgyz Teachers

2. 3 of them were Uzbek Teachers

3. 2 of the were Russian Teachers (which means that only 45% of awards were given to ethnic Kyrgyz)

From 1997 to 2009 the honorable award “The honored activist of education system of Kyrgyz Republic” was given to 6(six) people:

1. 3 of the were Kyrgyz Teachers

2. 2 of them were Uzbek Teachers

3. 1 of them was Russian Teacher (which means that only 50% of awards were given to ethnic Kyrgyz)

For the same period a medal “Outstanding worker of the education system of the Kyrgyz Republic” was given to 48 people.

1. 21 of the were Kyrgyz Teachers

2. 21 of them were Uzbek Teachers

3. 4 of them were Russian Teachers

4. 1 of them was Uighur Teacher

5. 1 of them was Tatar Teacher (which means that 41% of awards were given to ethnic Kyrgyz, and 59% were given to other ethnicities)

All directors of schools have higher education degrees [between bachelor and master as in the western education system]. Out of 57 directors

1. 46 of them were educated in Kyrgyzstan

2. 10 of them were educated in Uzbekistan

3. 1 was educated in Tatarstan

A number of ethnic Uzbek doctors, professors and other academics work at the universities of Osh city:

1. Mamasaidov Mahamadjan – doctor of science, professor, academic of National Academy of Science of Kyrgyz Republic, ex-president of Kyrgyz Uzbek University, decorated with orders and medals of Kyrgyz Republic. President of KUU – for more than 10 years, ex-deputy of 4th convocation Jogorku Kenesh of Kyrgyz Republic.

2. Maruhij Adyljan – doctor of science, professor, and has awards “Outstanding worker of education system of the Kyrgyz Republic”, and “Honored worker of education system of the Kyrgyz Republic”. Chairman of Civil Engineering department of Osh Technical University, for more than 30 years

3. Ismanjanov Anvar – doctor of sciences, professor, and has an award “Honored worker of science of Kyrgyz Republic”. President of Kyrgyz Uzbek University (2005-2010)

4. Mamaturdiev Gulamjon – doctor of sciences in physico-mathematics, professor, and was honored Worker of the education system of Kyrgyz Republic, chairman of Osh Governmental University and Kyrgyz-Uzbek University.

5. Abidjanov Sabidjan – doctor of economic sciences, professor, chairman of Osh Technical University.

6. Matkariov Sulayman – doctor of sciences, professor in Osh Technical University, Academic in Engineering Academy of the Kyrgyz Republic

7. Mamasaidov Abdumitalib – doctor of medical sciences, professor of KUU

8. Hasanov Tojchu – Doctor of pedagogical sciences, professor of Osh State University

9. Yusupov Furkat – doctor of medical sciences, professor in Osh State University, chairman of Osh State Hospital

10. Mamanazarov Jumanazar – doctor of medical sciences, professor KUU, chairman of Osh State Hospital

11. Sabirov Alisher – doctor of political sciences, general-major of police, ex-deputy of 4th convocation of Jogorku Kenesh of Kyrgyz Republic.

We are presenting results of analysis of Kyrgyz Uzbek University to Kyrgyzstan and international society. In 2009-2010 years, 70 scientists worked in this university.

With Doctor of Sciences degree

1. 4 Kyrgyzs

2. 7 Uzbeks

Candidates of Sciences

1. 27 Kyrgyzs

2. 28 Uzbeks

3. 4 from other ethnic groups

Honored workers in the education system of the Kyrgyz Republic

1. 1 Kyrgyzs

2. 3 Uzbeks

Honored scientific workers of the Kyrgyz Republic

1. 2 Uzbeks

Academicians of National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic

1. 1 Uzbek

Rewarded with medals of Kyrgyz Republic

1. Uzbek

In 2002, the dissertation council was established in the Kyrgyz-Uzbek University

The president of this council is Uzbek.

The vice-president of the council is Uzbek.

In 2009, Instructors of the Council was reformed and members were:

1. 8 Kyrgyzs

2. 9 Uzbeks

3. 1 from other ethnic group

In Kyrgyz Uzbek University there are 4 PhD students:

1. 2 Kyrgyzs

2. 2 Uzbeks

There are 69 Master students in this University

1. 27 Kyrgyzs

2. 40 Uzbeks

3. 2 from other ethnic groups

In Osh there is Uzbek Musical drama theatre named after Babur along with the Kyrgyz Drama theatre. All workers of this Uzbek theatre are Uzbeks. Five of them are the People’s Artists of Kyrgyz Republic.

1. Tuhtomatov Bahtiyorjon – Director of Theatre

2. Shabdanova Aitadjihan – Artist

3. Dadajanov Shafkatbek – Artist

4. Salieva Tursunhon – Artist

5. Hasanova Tojihon – Art’st

Among Kyrgyzs there are only two People’s Artists of Kyrgyz Republic.

1. Baiakov Fahridin

2. Alybaev Jolboldu

Seven Uzbek artists have Honored degrees of Artist of Kyrgyz Republic

1. Holmatova Samida

2. Mathalikov Hamidillo

3. Saipova Diloram

4. Tuhtomatov Bahram

5. Askarova Alla

6. Rahmanov Hamidjan

7. Tajibaev Rejap

Three Kyrgyz artists have Honored degrees of Artist of Kyrgyz Republic

1. Sadybakasova Gulshaiyr

2. Eshbaev Tokon

3. Moldokulov Ashym

Two Uzbeks have Honore degrees of Art Worker of Kyrgyz Republic

1. Jalalov Ziyadin

2. Shakirov Zakirjan

One Kyrgyz have Honored degrees of Art Worker of Kyrgyz Republic

1. Matiev Saidrahman

Even the superficial analysis of information shows that the conditions for ethnic Uzbeks in Kyrgyzstan in terms of education and cultural development do not comply with any definition of genocide. On the other hand, it is important to note that the negative attitude of Ukraine, Belarus, Georgia and Baltic countries towards ethnic Russians and Russian language, in our days. Kyrgyzstan always tried to satisfy the needs of ethnic Uzbek and other minorities. However, these concessions were interpreted as weakness and spinelessness of the Kyrgyz people. As a result, ethnic Uzbeks tried to demand more such as autonomy and official status for Uzbek language and etc.

Now, let us look at the third and forth forms of genocide, attempting to prevent procreation of some ethnic group and taking children of one ethnic group and giving them to others by force. Not only in the past 20 years of Kyrgyzstan’s independence but also in the entire history of USSR and onwards, it is impossible to encounter such attitudes of Kyrgyz people towards Uzbeks or any other ethnic groups.

To sum up, the last thing that left to say is the fact that the competences of some Uzbek leaders, who were sending SOS signals claiming that there was genocide without knowing the exact meaning of the term “genocide”, are open for further scrutiny.

P.S. In this article, independent experts of Osh analyzed only educational and cultural parts of social life of the Uzbek ethnic group in Osh city.

There is a Kyrgyz proverb: “Эркелесен эркеле бирок талтандаба”, which means if you want to do something, do it, but don’t go too far. Similar to the Russian proverb: do not spit into the well from which you drink.

This article is the first of its series. In following articles there will be more information about economic, healthcare and political life of ethnic Uzbeks in Kyrgyzstan. The aim is to prove that in our country Kyrgyzstan, there hasn’t been genocide or such actions towards any minority ethnic groups including Uzbeks.

Original Article in Russian:

Translated by:

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